Best Rowing Machines of 2024, According to Fitness Experts

Indoor rowing is a highly beneficial full-body exercise that targets many major muscle groups at once. Our team of fitness experts and gear reviewers have evaluated a range of options to determine the top-rated rowing machines on the market. Read on for our selections that provide an excellent low-impact total body workout experience.

Our editors independently research, test, and recommend the best products; we may receive commissions on purchases made from our chosen links. You can learn more about our review process here.

Overview

Rowing machines have become a key component of fitness routines, offering a full-body workout that’s both efficient and low-impact. Perfect for anyone looking to improve their cardiovascular health, build muscle, or lose weight, these machines are a great addition to any home gym.

In this article, we’ve meticulously selected the top rowing machines of 2024, favored by fitness enthusiasts and professionals alike. From high-tech, feature-packed models to simple, budget-friendly options, our list caters to every fitness level and preference.

We aim to guide you through the diverse world of rowing machines, helping you find the ideal fit for your fitness journey. So, whether you’re just starting or are a seasoned rower, join us as we explore the best rowing machines that promise durability, effectiveness, and value for money.

Are you ready to enhance your workout experience and achieve your fitness goals? Then you should read through our expert recommendations!

Best Rowing Machines

Best Rowing Machine Overall:
Concept 2 RowErg

Best Smart Rowing Machine:
Hydrow Wave

Best Water Rowing Machine:
WaterRower

Best Rowing Machine For Virtual Classes:
Aviron Impact Series Rower

Best Budget Rowing Machine:
ProForm 750R Rower

Our Top Picks

#1 Concept 2 RowErg

Key features:

  • Type of Equipment: Rowing machine
  • Price: $1,549

What we love:

  • Durable commercial-grade construction for heavy use
  • Track record of reliability over decades of use
  • Provides effective full-body cardio and strength workout
  • Records metrics like distance, pace, and watts for tracking progress
  • Folds compactly for storage when not in use

What to consider:

  • Air resistance flywheel makes noise during use
  • Basic display with limited connectivity/apps
  • Narrow seat may not suit all body types
  • Higher price point than some residential machines

Why we choose Concept2 RowErg:

Concept2 rowing machine is the gold standard for serious indoor rowing. Its durable build quality and simple but effective design have made it a favorite of athletes and gyms alike for decades. While basic in features, it excels at providing an excellent full-body workout.

Overview

Concept 2 RowErg, also known as the “erg”, is a renowned pioneer of air rowing machines for indoor use. It is popular among professional rowers and fitness enthusiasts at gyms. Professionals test this rowing machine’s durability daily, ensuring it can handle any workout routine.

With Bluetooth connectivity, the Concept 2 effortlessly transfers workout statistics to your mobile device for analysis. It accommodates users weighing up to 500 pounds. Despite its simplicity, it offers a reliable rower with basic stat-tracking and a lean display. Bluetooth connectivity makes it compatible with fitness trackers like Garmin.

Concept 2 RowErg, a basic yet high-quality model, provides accurate workout data. Each stroke syncs with the Concept 2 ErgData app, tracking distance, speed, pace, calories burned, and watts. It features five pre-programmed workouts and four games for motivation.

This commercial-grade rower has aluminum front legs and steel rear legs, offering durability for daily use. Despite its sturdy build, it weighs only 57 pounds and can be easily folded and stored, saving floor space.

Priced at $1,549, Concept 2 RowErg is a testament to its reliability and professional-grade durability. While Concept 2 RowErg is an excellent choice for many, it may not appeal to everyone. Users who prefer quieter workouts at home or require a wider seat may find it less suitable.

The machine’s chain can be noisy and may not provide the smoothest experience for those with less-than-perfect rowing techniques. Nevertheless, for those seeking a durable, reliable, and straightforward rowing machine, the Concept 2 RowErg stands as a stellar choice.

#2 Hydrow Wave

Key features:

  • Type of Equipment: Hydrow Wave Rowing Machine
  • Price: $1,595

What we love:

  • Compact, lightweight design takes up less floor space than other rowers
  • 16″ touchscreen provides engaging on-demand and live rowing classes
  • Magnetic resistance provides a quiet and smooth rowing feel
  • Financing options available for more accessible purchase
  • Hydrow membership offers a large library of instructor-led classes

What to consider:

  • Smaller screen size than some competitors
  • May be difficult to fit in very small spaces
  • Hydrow app has limited third-party integration compared to others
  • Requires monthly Hydrow membership fees after a free trial

Why we choose Hydrow Wave:

Hydrow Wave is a well-designed rowing machine that delivers an effective full-body workout. Its compact footprint and financing options increase accessibility. While not perfect for every home, Hydrow’s classes and quality construction make it a top option for connected rowing. The Wave lowers barriers to indoor rowing.

Overview

Hydrow Wave, a sleek, compact rowing machine priced at $1,595, is Hydrow’s second foray into the world of connected fitness. Coming on the heels of Peloton’s entry into the rowing market, the Wave is designed to overcome two significant barriers to indoor rowing: price and space.

The Wave is lighter and more compact than Hydrow’s original model, and significantly cheaper, making it a more accessible option for those interested in incorporating rowing into their fitness routine. Wave is a compact rowing machine with a 16-inch touchscreen, designed for home use.

It provides a quiet and immersive workout experience, emulating the sensation of rowing on water. While it may be challenging to fit in smaller spaces, the Wave offers high performance and quality. With financing options available, it provides a comprehensive workout experience with access to classes and a touchscreen.

Wave by Hydrow is a great option for beginners looking to master proper rowing form. With introductory classes and the convenience of home workouts, it provides a compelling and soothing workout experience.

However, integrating the Wave with third-party apps, like Apple Health, can be challenging. Despite the competition, Hydrow’s high-quality products and engaging classes make it a strong player in the connected fitness market. The Wave exemplifies their commitment to bringing effective rowing workouts to more homes.

#3 WaterRower

Key features:

  • Type of Equipment: WaterRower Rowing Machine
  • Price: $1,599

What we love:

  • Beautiful wood construction with walnut finish
  • Smooth, quiet operation from water flywheel resistance
  • Space-saving design that can be stored vertically
  • Tracks metrics like intensity, stroke rate, duration, distance

What to consider:

  • More expensive than other basic rowing machines
  • Fewer connected features than machines with digital screens
  • Heart rate monitor sold separately

Why we choose WaterRower:

For those seeking a rowing machine with an elegant aesthetic, WaterRower delivers effective workouts with its time-tested water flywheel resistance system in a handsome wooden frame. While more basic than connected models, it provides the essential rowing experience.

Overview

Meet WaterRower, an exceptional fitness company renowned for crafting appealing, high-quality rowing machines. Their standout product, the WaterRower Classic, delivers an unparalleled rowing workout experience. The heart of the machine is a water flywheel, featuring two paddles in a sealed tank, offering all-level rowers a seamless, quiet workout.

The machine’s aesthetic appeal is matched by its robustness – its sturdy frame, fashioned from solid black walnut with a Danish oil finish, can withstand an impressive 1,000 pounds. The walnut frame not only enhances its visual appeal but also cushions the impact, resulting in a smoother workout.

The machine, when operational, occupies an 84 by 22 inches area and can be conveniently stored upright, occupying a mere 22-inch space.

While WaterRower may appear simpler than Ergatta, it delivers comprehensive workout data via a display near the footplate. Users can easily track workout intensity, stroke rate, duration, and distance. Additionally, the monitor is designed to pair with WaterRower’s exclusive chest strap heart monitor (available separately).

#4 Aviron Impact Series Rower

Key features:

  • Type of Equipment: Aviron Impact Series Rower
  • Price: $2,199

What we love:

  • Smooth and quiet magnetic resistance provides a realistic rowing feel
  • Large 22″ HD touchscreen with pivoting mount for easy viewing
  • Connects to WiFi for streaming and on-demand classes
  • Storage for user profiles and workout metrics
  • Compact folding design for easy storage

What to consider:

  • Large footprint still requires significant floor space
  • No option to adjust footplate width for all users
  • Screen cannot rotate side to side during workouts

Why we choose Aviron Impact Series Rower:

Aviron Impact Series Rower offers a high-quality rowing experience with engaging on-screen workouts. Its folding design is compact for storage, but a large footprint is still needed. The smooth magnetic resistance and HD touchscreen provide an immersive home rowing solution.

Overview

Aviron Impact Series Rower is a top-notch workout machine that adds fun and competition to your fitness routine. With a 22-inch HD touchscreen, it offers interactive games, guided programs, and virtual rowing experiences for your home gym.

The compact and foldable design suits various users, and its 16 resistance levels accommodate all fitness stages. The $25 monthly subscription fee highlights its premium status, but the value it delivers makes it a worthwhile investment. Plus, with regular updates, smooth operation, and access to entertainment platforms, it enhances the user experience.

Aviron Impact Series Rower is a top choice for a comprehensive, full-body workout. Despite a higher price point and no live classes, this fitness equipment showcases the evolution of fitness technology.

With a price tag of $2,199 and a monthly membership cost of $25, it offers impressive specifications such as a height/weight capacity of 6 foot 7 inches/397 pounds. The rower’s dimensions when unfolded are 97 x 43 x 21 inches and 62 x 54 x 21 inches when folded. Weighing 97 pounds, it comes with a 2-year warranty for parts and touchscreen and 10 years for the frame.

Aviron Impact Series Rower is a versatile fitness machine that offers a full-body workout and simulates outdoor rowing. With its unique folding design, it can be easily stored when not in use, making it a valuable addition to any home gym.

Equipped with interactive features, a 22-inch HD touchscreen, and adjustable resistance levels, it provides an immersive and enjoyable workout experience for users of all fitness levels. Plus, its durable construction and commitment to updates make it a worthwhile long-term investment.

#5 ProForm 750R Rower

Key features:

  • Type of Equipment: ProForm 750R Folding Smart Rower with 30-Day iFit Membership
  • Price: $699

What we love:

  • Comes with 30-day iFit membership for on-demand and live classes
  • Magnetic resistance provides a quiet and smooth rowing feel
  • Large adjustable tablet holder for viewing workouts
  • Folds vertically for compact storage when not in use
  • Over 250 lb weight capacity

What to consider:

  • iFit membership is required to access the full library of connected features
  • Smaller 16″ display compared to some models
  • Foot straps not adjustable for all foot sizes
  • Heavy at over 100 lbs – more difficult to move than some

Why we choose ProForm 750R Smart Rower:

ProForm 750R Smart Rower offers an engaging at-home rowing experience with on-screen workouts and automatic resistance control. Its folding design saves space but weight makes it less portable. The iFit membership unlocks a wide library of classes.

Overview

ProForm 750R Rower, painted in sleek black, is a fitness machine with a dual resistance mechanism that incorporates both magnetic and air systems, offering a seamless exercise experience. This rower, with dimensions of 22″D x 86.5″ W x 45.5″H, is designed to support a maximum weight of 250 pounds efficiently.

Crafted with superior material and powered by batteries, it sports an easy-to-read LCD. This rower includes a 30-day iFit membership for streaming live and on-demand workouts. Enjoy global workouts, studio classes, and remote adjustment of settings by elite trainers.

The 750R Rower features an adjustable tablet holder and displays workout metrics on a 5″ multi-color screen. With 24 digital resistance levels and iFit integration, your trainer can auto-adjust the resistance for a seamless experience. The equipment guarantees near-silent workouts at home, thanks to its SMR Silent Magnetic Resistance.

Its space-saving folding design lets you store it vertically when not in use. The oversized pivoting pedals with adjustable foot straps ensure a secure and comfortable workout.

ProForm 750R Rower is robust and capable of handling a total weight capacity of 250 pounds. It is protected with a 5-year frame warranty and a 1-year parts and labor warranty. Its compact dimensions are 45.5” H x 22” W x 86.5” L.

What are Rowing Machines?

Rowing machines are essential tools in modern fitness regimes, designed to simulate the physical movement of rowing a boat. These machines are highly effective for a comprehensive workout that targets several muscle groups simultaneously. Ideal for cardiovascular health, they also strengthen the legs, back, arms, and core, offering a balanced exercise routine.

Their low-impact nature makes rowing machines particularly appealing. Unlike high-impact exercises that can strain joints, rowing provides a vigorous workout with minimal risk of injury. This aspect makes them suitable for a wide range of users, from beginners to seasoned athletes.

Fitness experts often commend the versatility of rowing machines. They offer adjustable resistance levels, allowing users to tailor their workout intensity. This adaptability not only accommodates different fitness levels but also supports progressive training, essential for long-term fitness development.

Incorporating a rowing machine into your fitness routine can significantly enhance overall physical health, offering a practical and efficient way to achieve various fitness goals, from weight loss to muscle building. Their capacity to deliver a full-body workout while being gentle on the joint positions makes rowing machines a smart choice for anyone seeking to improve their physical well-being.

How We Choose the Best Rowing Machines?

Selecting the best rowing machines is a meticulous process that our team of fitness experts undertakes with great care and attention to detail. We understand the importance of choosing a machine that not only meets but exceeds your workout needs. To ensure we recommend the finest options available, we consider several critical factors:

  • Performance and Versatility: We prioritize machines that offer a variety of workout intensities and styles. This includes evaluating the smoothness of the rowing action, the range of resistance levels, and the ability to accommodate different fitness routines.
  • Build Quality and Durability: The construction of the machine is paramount. We look for rowers built with high-quality materials that promise longevity and stability, ensuring your investment lasts for years.
  • User Experience and Comfort: A key aspect of our selection process is the overall user experience. This includes assessing the comfort of the seat, the grip of the handles, and the ease of use of the foot straps. We believe a comfortable workout is a more effective one.
  • Technology and Features: In today’s digital age, technology plays a significant role. We examine the technological aspects, such as the accuracy and readability of the monitor, availability of fitness tracking, and any interactive features that enhance your rowing experience.
  • Brand Reputation and Customer Feedback: We consider the reputation of the manufacturer, focusing on brands known for their quality and customer service. Additionally, we delve into customer rowing machine reviews and testimonials to gauge user satisfaction and real-world performance.
  • Price and Value for Money: We understand that value for money is crucial. Our selections aim to offer a balance between cost and the features provided, ensuring you get the most out of your investment.
  • Size and Storage: Lastly, we consider the practicality of the machine in terms of size and storage. We favor rowers that are space-efficient and easy to store, especially the best rowing machine for home, important for home gym setups.

What are the Types of Rowing Machines?

When it comes to rowing machines, it’s not a one-size-fits-all scenario. There are several types, each with unique features and benefits, designed to cater to different preferences and fitness levels. Let’s break them down:

Air Rowers:

If you’re searching for the best rower that closely mimics actual rowing, air rowers are the top choice. Known for their smooth feel, these machines use a flywheel to create resistance, making them the best rowing machine for those who want a workout that adjusts to their effort. The more you row, the greater the resistance. Commonly found in gyms, they are perfect for anyone seeking a challenging and realistic rowing experience.

Magnetic Rowers:

When it comes to home fitness, the best magnetic rowing machine offers a winning combination of quiet operation and adjustable resistance. These machines use magnets to create a smooth rowing experience, which you can easily control. This feature makes them the best home rowing machine, particularly if you’re aiming for a workout that’s effective yet doesn’t disturb the peace of your household.

Hydraulic Rowers:

Hydraulic rowers stand out as the best compact rowing machine, offering a space-saving design ideal for smaller areas. Not only are they more compact, but also recognized as the best budget rowing machine, making them a wallet-friendly option. These rowers use pistons for resistance, allowing for adjustable intensity. Perfect for those short on space or beginners not ready to invest heavily, the best hydraulic rowing machines provide an accessible entry into the world of rowing.

Water Rowers:

For a rowing experience that closely mimics rowing on water, the water rowing machine is a top choice. They use water in a tank to create resistance. Not only do they provide a realistic rowing feel, but they also offer a soothing, meditative sound of water, enhancing your workout experience.

Combination Rowers:

Some rowing machines come with additional features, like the ability to convert into a different type of exercise machine. It is the best-buy rowing machine if you’re looking for versatility and want to mix up your workouts.

Foldable Rowers:

Foldable rowing machines are among the best rowing machines for home gyms, offering a perfect balance of functionality and convenience. Ideal for space-saving needs, the best foldable rowing machines provide a full-body workout while easily collapsing for storage, making them a top choice for fitness enthusiasts with limited space.

How to Use Rowing Machines

Using a rowing machine can seem intimidating at first, but it’s actually quite straightforward. Here’s a simple step-by-step guide to help you get started:

  • Adjust the Machine: Before you start, make sure the foot straps fit you. Your feet should be securely placed with the straps tight enough so your feet don’t move around too much.
  • Find Your Grip: Sit down on the rower and grab the handle. Your grip should be firm but relaxed – without squeezing too hard.
  • Master the Basic Rowing Motion: Rowing has four main parts – the catch, the drive, the finish, and the recovery. In the catch, start with knees bent and lean forward from your hips, arms straight out. Then, in the drive, push back with your legs, lean back slightly, and pull the handle to your chest. The finish is a slight lean back with the handle at your chest. Finally, for the recovery, extend your arms out, lean forward from the hips, and bend your knees to return to the starting position.
  • Start Slowly: Begin with a slow, steady pace to get a feel for the motion. Focus on your form rather than speed or power at first.
  • Monitor Your Posture: Keep your back straight, shoulders relaxed, and look forward. Avoid slouching or hunching over.
  • Breathe Properly: Remember to breathe – inhale on the recovery and exhale on the drive. Proper breathing helps with rhythm and endurance.
  • Gradually Increase Intensity: Once you’re comfortable with the basic motion and your form is good, you can start increasing the pace and resistance according to your fitness level.
  • Cool Down and Stretch: After your workout, slow down your pace for a few minutes as a cool-down. Then, get off the machine and do some gentle stretches to help your muscles recover.

Benefits of Rowing Machines

Home gym machines come with a host of benefits that can greatly enhance your workout experience. Here’s why incorporating them into your fitness routine can be a game changer:

Full-Body Workout:

Rowing is a comprehensive total body exercise. It simultaneously engages multiple muscle groups across your body, including your arms, legs, back, and core, providing a balanced workout. This integration of various muscles not only enhances muscle strength but also improves cardiovascular fitness, as supported by a study in Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine[1].

Cardiovascular Health:

Regular use of a rowing machine is excellent for heart health. It’s a form of aerobic exercise, which is known to improve heart function and circulation. The Journal of the American Heart Association[2] recommends aerobic exercises like rowing for overall cardiovascular health.

Low Impact on Joints:

Rowing stands out for being gentle on the joints, contrasting with high-impact exercises such as running. This low-impact nature makes rowing an accessible exercise for individuals of all ages, including those with joint issues or concerns and older adults. Studies in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation[3] highlight the suitability of rowing for those seeking effective exercise while minimizing the risk of joint stress or injury.

Calorie Burning:

Rowing machines are an excellent choice for those targeting weight loss. Known for their efficiency in burning calories, these machines can significantly aid in weight loss and body fat reduction. A study in the Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine[4] highlighted the effectiveness of rowing in burning calories efficiently.

Mental Health Benefits:

The rhythmic nature of rowing can be incredibly meditative and stress-relieving. It has been cited in research, including a Harvard Health[5] article, for its benefits in reducing anxiety and improving mental health.

Improved Endurance and Stamina:

Consistent rowing workouts increase stamina and endurance. This is backed by research published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health[6], which found improvements in aerobic capacity and endurance in individuals who engaged in regular rowing exercises.

Versatility:

One of the standout features of rowing machines is their versatility, making them a suitable exercise option for people across various fitness levels. Whether you are just starting your fitness journey or are an experienced athlete, rowing machines can be adjusted to meet your specific resistance and intensity needs.

final-sec verdictConclusion

Rowing machines present a multifaceted solution for achieving a range of fitness goals. They offer a total body workout, improving cardiovascular health, building muscle strength, and aiding in weight loss, all while being gentle on the joints. Additionally, the mental health benefits, including stress reduction and improved mood, make rowing machines a holistic exercise choice.

In our comprehensive review, we have highlighted the best rowing machines on the market, each carefully evaluated by our team of fitness professionals. Our selections encompass various types, from air and magnetic to water and foldable rowing machines, ensuring there’s a perfect match for every need and preference. We’ve considered factors like performance, durability, user comfort, technological features, brand reputation, and value for money to bring you top-notch recommendations.

The rowing machines we’ve chosen not only meet high standards of quality and functionality but also receive excellent customer feedback. Users praise their effective results, ease of use, and overall improvement in fitness and well-being. We’re confident that among our recommended options, you’ll find the ideal rowing machine to complement your fitness journey and help you achieve your health goals.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q. What are the Key Benefits of Using a Rowing Machine?
A. Rowing machines offer a comprehensive full-body workout, enhancing cardiovascular health, and muscle strength, and also aiding in weight loss. They are also low-impact, making them suitable for all ages and fitness levels.

Q. How Often Should I Use a Rower Machine for Effective Results?
A. For effective results, it’s recommended to use a rowing machine 3-5 times a week, with each session lasting 30 minutes to an hour. However, individual fitness goals and levels should guide the frequency and duration of workouts.

Q. Can Rowing Machines Help with Weight Loss?
A. Yes, rowing machines can significantly aid in weight loss. They are effective in burning calories and increasing metabolism, making them an excellent tool for weight management when combined with a healthy diet.

Q. What’s the Best Rowing Machine for a Beginner?
A. For beginners, opt for a user-friendly rowing machine, with adjustable resistance and a comfortable seat. A model with simple, clear instructions is ideal for easing into rowing workouts.

Q. What Types of Rowing Machines are Available?
A. There are various types of rowing machines, including air, magnetic, hydraulic, water, and foldable rowers, each offering different features to cater to individual preferences and workout styles.

Q. How Much Space Do I Need for a Rowing Machine?
A. The space required depends on the type of rowing machine. Foldable models are ideal for limited spaces. Generally, you’ll need an area slightly larger than the machine itself, with additional space for safe movement during exercise.

Q. How Much Does a New Rowing Machine Cost?
A. The cost of a new rowing machine varies widely, ranging from around $200 for basic models to over $2000 for high-end machines. The price depends on factors like the type of resistance, build quality, features, and brand.

Q. What is the Best Brand of Rowing Machine?
A. Identifying the “best” brand can be subjective as it depends on individual needs and preferences. However, our review of the best rowing machines for 2024 includes top brands known for their quality, innovation, and customer satisfaction. Each brand in our selection offers unique features and reliability, catering to a range of fitness enthusiasts’ needs.

Q. How Do You Use a Rowing Machine Safely?
A. To use a rowing machine safely, ensure proper form: keep your back straight, use your legs for power, and avoid jerky movements. Start with lower resistance, and gradually increase as you become comfortable to prevent injury.

Q. Is it Safe to Use a Rowing Machine Every Day?
A. Using a rowing machine every day is generally safe for healthy individuals. However, it’s important to listen to your body and include rest days if needed, especially for beginners or those with existing health conditions.

Q. What is the Best Rowing Machine for Apartments?
A. The best apartment rowing machine is compact, preferably foldable for easy storage, and offers various resistance levels. Durability and user comfort are key for a satisfying home workout experience.

Q. Can I Use a Rowing Machine if I Have Back Problems?
A. While rowing is generally safe, individuals with back problems should consult with a healthcare professional before starting. Proper technique and posture are crucial to avoid any strain on the back.

Q. Are There Age Restrictions for Using Rowing Machines?
A. Rowing machines are versatile and can be used by most age groups. However, older adults or younger individuals need to exercise within their capability and possibly seek guidance from fitness professionals.

References

BodybuildingReviews avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in BodybuildingReviews, you can read more about the editorial process here.

  1. Health Benefits of Exercise: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027933/
  2. Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850195/
  3. Clinical Benefits and System Design of FES-Rowing Exercise for Rehabilitation of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33556345/
  4. Effects of Indoor Rowing Exercise on the Body Composition and the Scoliosis of Visually Impaired People: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4564707/
  5. Regular exercise changes the brain to improve memory, and thinking skills: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/regular-exercise-changes-brain-improve-memory-thinking-skills-201404097110#app
  6. The Time Course of Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Rowing Indoor Training in Post-Menopausal Women: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9965168/

Heather Black, CPT

Heather Black, CPT is a certified personal trainer with the National Academy of Sports Medicine, a CrossFit Level 2 Trainer, & a Precision Nutrition Certified Coach.
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